AY 20/21 - Introduction to Machine Learning and Evolutionary Robotics

This page is about the courses named (actually the same course):

  • Introduction to Machine Learning and Evolutionary Robotics (332MI), for master program IN20, 9 CFUs
  • Apprendimento automatico ed estrazione dell’informazione dai dati (222MI), for master program IN19, 9 CFUs
  • Introduction to Machine Learning (470SM), for master programs SM35 and SM34, 6 CFUs
  • Machine Learning and Data Analytics (557EC), for master program EC71, 6 CFUs (part of a 9 CFUs course)

Program, goals, requirements #

Detailed program #

Part 1 (24h) #

  • Definitions of Machine Learning and Data Mining; why ML and DM are hot topics; examples of applications of ML; phases of design, development, and assessment of a ML system; terminology.
  • Introduction to the software/language R; elements of data visualization.
  • Supervised learning 1.
    • Tree-based methods.
      • Decision and regression trees: learning and prediction; role of the parameter and overfitting.
      • Trees aggregation: bagging, Random Forest, boosting.
      • Supervised learning system assessment: cross-fold validation; accuracy and other metrics; metrics for binary classification (FPR, FNR, EER, AUC) and ROC.
    • Support Vector Machines (SVM).
      • Separating hyperplane: maximal margin classifier; support vectors; learning as an optimization problem; maximal margin classifier limitations.
      • Soft margin classifier: learning, role of the parameter C.
      • Non linearly separable problems; kernel: brief background and main options (linear, polynomial, radial); intuition behind radial kernel; SVM,
      • Multiclass classification with SVM.

Part 2 (24h) #

  • Text and natural language applications (text mining)
    • Sentiment analysis; features for text mining; common pre-processing steps; topic modeling.
  • Recommending systems.
    • Content-based filtering; collaborative filtering.
    • Assessment metrics: precision, recall, accuracy@K, diversity, serendipity.
  • Evolutionary Computation (EC).
    • High-level working scheme of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA); terminology.
    • Generational model; selection criteria; exploration/exploitation trade-off; genetic operators with examples; fitness function; multi-objective optimization and Pareto dominance; debugging of an evolutionary search; EA issues (diversity, variational inheritance, expressiveness); fitness landscape.
    • Examples of common EAs: GA, GP, GE.

Part 3 (24h) #

  • Supervised learning 2.
    • The Bayes classifier.
    • The K-nearest neighbors classifier.
  • Unupervised learning.
    • Dimensionality reduction methods: principal component analysis; biplot.
    • Cluster analysis: hierarchical methods, partitional methods (k-means algorithm).
  • Evolutionary Robotics
    • Brief foundations of Artificial Neural Networks and EC
      • EA for neuroevolution
    • Significant examples
      • Evolution of Soft Robots morphologies (body)
      • Evolution of robotic agents controllers (brain)
      • Simultaneous evolution of body and brain
    • Simulation: tools and benchmark tasks

Goal of the course #

Knowledge and understanding #

  • Know main kinds of problems which can be tackled with ML and those ones concerning text and natural language and recommendation
  • Know main ML and DM techniques. Know design, development, and assessment phases of a ML system; know main assessment metrics and procedures suitable for a ML system.
  • Know main kinds of problems which can be tackled with EC and ANN.
  • Know general working schemes of most common EAs.
  • Know design, development, and assessment phases of a EC-based system in the field of robotics.

Applying knowledge and understanding #

  • Formulate a formal problem statement for simple practical problems in order to tackle them with ML, DM, or EC/ER techniques.
  • Develop simple end-to-end ML systems.
  • Experimentally assess a simple end-to-end ML or EC/ER system.

Making judgements #

  • Judge the technical soundness of a ML or EC/ER system.
  • Judge the technical soundness of the assessment of a ML or EC/ER system.

Communication skills #

  • Describe, both in written and oral form, the motivations behind choices in the design, development, and assessment of a ML or EC/ER system, possibly exploiting simple plots.

Learning skills #

  • Retrieve information from scientific publications about ML or EC/ER techniques not explicitly presented in this course.

Requirements #

Basics of statistics: basic graphical tools of data exploration; summary measures of variable distribution (mean, variance, quantiles); fundamentals of probability and of univariate and multivariate distribution of random variables; basics of linear regression analysis.

Basics of linear algebra: vectors, matrices, matrix operations; diagonalization and decomposition in singular values.

Basics of programming and data structures: algorithm, data types, loops, recursion, parallel execution, tree.

Method, language, material #

Language of teaching #

English

Teaching method #

Frontal lessons with blackboard and slide projection; exercises, under teacher supervision, in dealing with simple problems with ML techniques.

Course material #

Teacher slides and lab sketches #

All the material is available here:

  • Teacher slides, full pack for first and second part, full pack for third part.
  • Annotated slides; will be provided after the lectures.
  • Sketches for how to do the lab activieties, in the form of R notebooks; please, fully enjoy the lab activity by not looking at these sketches too early.

Suggested textbooks #

  • Kenneth A. De Jong. Evolutionary computation: a unified approach. MIT press, 2006
  • Gareth James, Daniela Witten, Trevor Hastie and Robert Tibshirani. An Introduction to Statistical Learning, with applications in R. Springer, Berlin: Springer Series in Statistics, 2014.

Lectures timetable and course calendar #

The course will start on October, 6th. Lectures will be held in online (Tuesday and Thursday) or in Classroom 3B, H3 building, in Piazzale Europa campus (Wednesday).

End-of-course test (exam) #

The exam consists of a project and a written test. The final grade is the average of the two grades: the exam is considered failed if at least one of the two grades is <18. Student must register for the exam session of their interest using the online sistem (esse3). Note that there are deadlines for registration (usually 1 week before the session date).

Final project #

The student chooses a problem among a closed, teacher-defined set of problems and proposes a solution based on ML, DM, or EC techniques. The expected outcome is a written document (few pages) including: the problem statement; one or more performance indexes able to capture any solution ability to solve the problem; a description of the proposed solution from the algorithmic point of view; the results and a discussion about the experimental assessment of the solution with, if applicable, information about used data. Student may form groups for the project: in this case, the document must show, for each student of the group, which activities the student took part in. The project is evaluated according to clarity (≈50%), technical soundness (≈33%), and results (≈17%).

The project assignment is here.

Written test #

Questions on theory and application with short open answers.